[ Diabetes Type 2 ]

What your gut bacteria can tell you about type 2 diabetes

A group of Russian scientists, including Dr Elena Kostryukova, the Head of the Laboratory of Postgenomic Research in Biology of the Scientific Research Institute of Physical-Chemical Medicine and a researcher at MIPT (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology), and Maria Vakhitova, an MIPT postgraduate student, has discovered that the presence of certain bacteria in the gut may be linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. In the Danish study of 277 non-diabetic individuals and 75 type 2 diabetic patients, there was close collaboration between the University of Copenhagen and the Technical University of Denmark with extensive international participation from a team of investigators, who performed analyses of the action of the insulin hormone. Kandice Stellmon, certified nutrition consultant: Having enough omega-3 fatty acids is critical. The team discovered that one strain of mice with genetic risk of obesity became resistant to excess weight gain after their populations of gut microbiota were changed by sharing an environment with other mice. And it may be related to incidence of diabetes, too. This includes antimicrobial peptides and natural proteins that destroy pathogenic bacteria by disrupting their cellular membrane. The results of the study showed that, in particular, male NOD mice exposed to PAT had twice (53%) the incidence of type 1 diabetes as control NOD mice that did not receive antibiotics, and had 26% of incidence.

As identical twins share the same genes, they present a unique opportunity to identify aspects of disease linked to the gut microbiome – the collection of microorganisms living in the gut – separately from causes due to human genetic variation. Specifically, the mice that lacked intestinal bacteria displayed a lower level of glycine, a key component of glutathione. For most individuals (16), one sample each was collected at the start of the study period and one sample each between 12 and 44 months later. This caused the mice to possess symptoms such as insulin resistance, high lipid levels, and obesity. This longitudinal sampling method allowed the researchers to observe changes in the microbiota between individuals and over time. The methods used in this study could potentially be used in other twin cohorts to identify early microbial markers of other conditions at the pre-symptomatic stage, according to the researchers. Due to the small sample size of this study (20 individuals), further research needs to be done in larger cohorts to confirm these findings.

Without such stimulation, the Th2 system flourishes and the immune system tends to react with allergic responses more easily. That’s a question for future research, Kostic said. All articles are available free of charge, according to BioMed Central’s open access policy. “At first we thought bacteria just produced vitamins, but bacteria do other things,” says Matam Vijay-Kumar, PhD, an assistant professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Emory University. Genome Biology is the highest ranked Open Access journal in the category. Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs.

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