The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise prior to or during pregnancy on maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and on fetal anomaly frequency in a rat pregnancy model utilizing chemically induced diabetes. Glycosylation of maternal hair was stable from tip to root in controls. Other “complications” of pregnancy, from having had an abortion to the mother being at a sub-optimal age for bearing children, also increased the odds they would give birth to a child with autism-spectrum disorder. In addition, the maternal metabolic milieu was also identified as a key determinant of later insulin resistance in offspring, a phenomenon often described as ‘fetal programming’. The patients visited the hospital every 2 weeks during pregnancy for general obstetric and glycaemic control and blood sampling. Low glycodelin concentration was associated with progression of diabetic retinopathy in multiple regression analysis. Measurement of amino acids and conventional metabolites have demonstrated changes in mothers with higher insulin resistance and glucose similar to changes in non-gravid, insulin-resistant populations, suggesting similarities in the metabolic profile characteristic of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant populations.
The number of fetal beta cells from normal mothers was somewhat greater than that from diabetic mothers. From the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, diabetic women who smoked tobacco demonstrated an increase in systemic arterial blood pressure (♦) of the same magnitude as in nonsmoking diabetic women, but in contrast to the nonsmoking diabetic women, those who smoked demonstrated no concomitant retinal artery constriction (▵) or retinal vein constriction ( ). Vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration changed significantly with gestation in the diabetic pregnant group only. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that some women get during pregnancy. Progression of diabetic retinopathy was associated with a longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.03) and insulin treatment before pregnancy (p = 0.004). This fall in retinal volumetric blood flow in diabetic patients may exacerbate retinal ischemia and hypoxia and thus may be associated with the progression of diabetic retinopathy.