[ Diabetes Type 2 ]

The effect of hormonal replacement therapy on the vascular reactivity and endothelial function of healthy

Individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk of severe hypoglycemia secondary to impairments in normal glucose counterregulatory responses (CRRs). The correlation of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or GDM and hormonal contraceptives was found by health researchers by analyzing data from 2,741 pregnancies. We infused noradrenaline, mainly an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in three escalating doses (0.5, 2.5, and 5 micrograms min-1) in three age and sex matched groups of eight subjects: healthy volunteers, diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy. M. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m2 [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19–25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). Serum estroneincreased (p < 0.05), but this had no influence on SHBG capacity, indicating that the estrogen/androgen balance was unchanged during treatment. Roughly one-third of this group is unaware that they even have diabetes, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this country.

endothelium-dependent vasodilation was also higher in postmenopausal healthy women on HRT (143 +/- 52) compared with postmenopausal diabetic women on HRT (86 +/- 61), postmenopausal healthy women without HRT (104 +/- 43), and postmenopausal diabetic women without HRT (74 +/- 28; P < 0.001). A similar pattern of responses was observed in the endothelium-independent vasodilation (premenopausal healthy women, 126 +/- 56; premenopausal diabetic women, 88 +/- 26; postmenopausal healthy women on HRT, 121 +/- 37; postmenopausal diabetic women on HRT, 88 +/- 41; postmenopausal healthy women without HRT, 84 +/- 36; and postmenopausal diabetic women without HRT, 73 +/- 36; P < 0.001). The GPR119 response was glucose sensitive and was abolished by Y1 receptor antagonism. Premenopausal women with diabetes (248.9 +/- 56 ng/ml) and postmenopausal women with diabetes on HRT (257.7 +/- 49 ng/ml) had lower sICAM levels compared with the postmenopausal diabetic women without HRT (346.4 +/- 149 ng/ml; P < 0.05). 6.8 ± 2.7 in healthy controls; P = 0.002). contraceptives containing 'first'-, 'second'- and 'third'-generation progestogens, drospirenone and cyproterone acetate. min-1 1.73m-2, P < 0.05, respectively). However, the use of HRT among women with diabetes is associated with lower sICAM levels, suggesting an attenuation in endothelial activation.

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