Study subjects consisted of population-based cohorts of younger-onset (diagnosed before age 30 years and taking insulin, n = 906) and older-onset (diagnosed after age 30 years, n = 984) individuals with diabetes. Family history of diabetes and clinical data were collected from 232 unrelated type 2 diabetic Moroccan patients. Controversy notwithstanding, patients with diabetes have several medical conditions (obesity, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy) that can inhibit the identification or mask the progression of fungal nail infections. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. In older-onset persons, history of ulcers (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6-6.8), glycosylated hemoglobin level (OR, 1.3 for 1%; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), duration of diabetes (OR, 1.6 for 10 years; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5), sex (OR, 2.6 for men; 95% CI, 1.3-4.9), diastolic blood pressure (OR, 0.7 for 10 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.5-1.0), and proteinuria (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.7) were significantly associated with incidence of lower-extremity amputation. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed on stereo fundus photographs of fields 1, 2, and 4. The diabetic population was found to have higher rates of 30-day mortality, deep sternal wound infection, stroke, and longer length of stay than the nondiabetic population.
In order to further increase the efficacy of topical or oral treatment, mechanical intervention (e.g., debridement) may be combined with either of these options. Finally, triglycerides and AER are the main factors influencing Lp(a) serum levels in the diabetic population.