Data on the functionalities of L-carnitine on obesity, diabetes, and as an ergogenic aid are summarized as follows: Obesity: Total lipid, triglyceride, and total protein increased during the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Lymphocyte homing receptors have been considered candidate targets to prevent autoimmune diabetes. There was no family history of diabetes mellitus. However, cathepsin L mRNA levels in muscle were higher in normal diet-fed C57BL/6J mice compared with normal diet-fed NMRI mice at 3 months (0.72 +/- 0.04 vs. Using RNase L-deficient, rat insulin promoter-B7.1 transgenic mice, which are more vulnerable to harmful environmental factors such as viral infection, we demonstrated that deficiency of RNase L in mice resulted in a significant delay of diabetes onset induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a type of synthetic dsRNA, and streptozotocin, a drug which can artificially induce type 1-like diabetes in experimental animals. In juvenile diabetics the mean fasting serum HGH level decreased after the control of diabetes but was still significantly higher than in normal subjects. Supported in part by a research grant (AM 04722–04 and 05) and a graduate training grant (T1 AM 5245–05) from the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, a grant (3M01–FR40) from the Division of Research Facilities and Resources, Clinical Research Center, and a grant (HE 06352) from the Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center, National Heart Institute, National Institutes of Health, and by a gift in memory of Anne Lindsay Eakins.
Levels were also raised in patients with untreated Graves’ disease. RESULTS—In group 1, no changes in basal cGMP levels, systolic blood pressure, forearm blood flow, glucose disposal, and endogenous glucose production were observed throughout. sL-selectin levels correlated with the presence of diabetes-associated HLA alleles in both family members and controls; levels also fell with increasing age in family members. Multiple regression analysis showed that HLA genotype and age were independent determinants of sL-selectin levels. sL-selectin levels are raised at the time of diagnosis of type I diabetes and Graves’ disease and appear to be modulated by disease activity, but levels are determined predominantly by HLA-associated genetic susceptibility and age. sL-selectin may provide a late marker of autoimmune destruction of islets and sequential measurement may be useful in monitoring disease activity and the effect of interventions preceding type I diabetes.