[ Diabetes Type 1 ]

Recent advances in nanotechnology for diabetes treatment

With seven children, 15 grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren, Roselle Hartsfield has a lot to live for. Even with intensification of statin therapy, a substantial residual cardiovascular risk remains and atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important driver of this so-called residual risk. Although significant challenges remain, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any cell type, including insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells, highlighting its potential as a treatment option for DM. The main biochemical abnormality, common to aging and diabetes, is the non-enzymatic glycosilation of collagen, with advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, which in turn leads to an increase of collagen cross-links. In cultured rat pancreatic islets, the human autoantibodies inhibit glucose-induced insulin release, whereas, in human pancreatic islets CD38 autoantibodies stimulate glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Embryos that lack both functional Pax3 protein and p53 do not display neuroepithelial apoptosis or neural tube defects. It had to be injected twice daily.

Islet, pancreas-kidney and stem cells transplants are also being attempted though complete success is still a far way off. The high prevalence and projected large increases are not confined to the US. Dong, X‐C, Xu, H, Wang, X‐W, Huang, Y‐X, Chan‐Park, MB, Zhang, H, Wang, L‐H, Huang, W, Chen, P. Studies have shown that obese people who have not contracted diabetes have a higher amount of beta cells than obese diabetics. ACS Nano 2012, 6:3206–3213. Tang, H, Yan, F, Lin, P, Xu, J, Chan, HLW. 2006;166:1836-1841.

In a previous article, published on Diabetes in 2007, researchers proved that TZDs inhibit JNK kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), a transducer of biochemical signals which inhibit insulin signaling and is related to insulin resistance. Click here to learn more about Sanofi’s commitment to fighting counterfeit drugs. Medscape encourages you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming. Angew Chem 2011, 123:1868–1871. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. Insurance companies will not readily agree to pay for empagliflozin; they will only consider its use after other treatments have been tried to get glucose blood levels down. ACS Nano 2011, 6:819–830.

Nunes, SP, Behzad, AR, Hooghan, B, Sougrat, R, Karunakaran, M, Pradeep, N, Vainio, U, Peinemann, K‐V. In the days and weeks following diagnosis, symptoms and emotions may impair the patient’s ability to interact with devices required for therapy. ACS Nano 2011, 5:3516–3522. Zhai, D, Liu, B, Shi, Y, Pan, L, Wang, Y, Li, W, Zhang, R, Yu, G. Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticle/polyaniline hydrogel heterostructures. ACS Nano 2013, 7:3540–3546. Unlike in type 2 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas are completely destroyed in type 1 diabetes.

Ultrathin polymeric coatings based on hydrogen‐bonded polyphenol for protection of pancreatic islet cells. Adv Funct Mater 2012, 22:3389–3398. Dang, TT, Thai, AV, Cohen, J, Slosberg, JE, Siniakowicz, K, Doloff, JC, Ma, M, Hollister‐Lock, J, Tang, KM, Gu, Z, et al. Enhanced function of immuno‐isolated islets in diabetes therapy by co‐encapsulation with an anti‐inflammatory drug. Biomaterials 2013, 34:5792–5801. Wilson, JT, Cui, W, Kozlovskaya, V, Kharlampieva, E, Pan, D, Qu, Z, Krishnamurthy, VR, Mets, J, Kumar, V, Wen, J, et al. Cell surface engineering with polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films.

J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:7054–7064. Gordijo, CR, Koulajian, K, Shuhendler, AJ, Bonifacio, LD, Huang, HY, Chiang, S, Ozin, GA, Giacca, A, Wu, XY. Nanotechnology‐enabled closed loop insulin delivery device: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of glucose‐regulated insulin release for diabetes control. Adv Funct Mater 2011, 21:73–82. Gu, Z, Dang, TT, Ma, M, Tang, BC, Cheng, H, Jiang, S, Dong, Y, Zhang, Y, Anderson, DG. Glucose‐responsive microgels integrated with enzyme nanocapsules for closed‐loop insulin delivery. Weight loss in severely obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes.

Sheshiah, Chennai. Totally synthetic polymer gels responding to external glucose concentration: their preparation and application to on‐off regulation of insulin release. J Am Chem Soc 1998, 120:12694–12695. Wang, B, Ma, R, Liu, G, Li, Y, Liu, X, An, Y, Shi, L. Glucose‐responsive micelles from self‐assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)‐b‐poly(acrylic acid‐co‐acrylamidophenylboronic acid) and the controlled release of insulin. Langmuir 2009, 25:12522–12528. Zhao, L, Ding, J, Xiao, C, He, P, Tang, Z, Pang, X, Zhuang, X, Chen, X.

Glucose‐sensitive polypeptide micelles for self‐regulated insulin release at physiological pH. J Mater Chem 2012, 22:12319–12328. Kataoka, K, Miyazaki, H, Bunya, M, Okano, T, Sakurai, Y. On‐off regulation of insulin‐release by totally synthetic polymer gels responding to external glucose concentration. Fonseca, American Diabetes Association; A.B. Zhao, Y, Trewyn, BG, Slowing, II, Lin, VSY. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle‐based double drug delivery system for glucose‐responsive controlled release of insulin and cyclic AMP.

J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131:8398–8400. Zhao, W, Zhang, H, He, Q, Li, Y, Gu, J, Li, L, Li, H, Shi, J. Curr Med Res Opin. Chem Commun 2011, 47:9459–9461. Zion, T, Zarur, A, Ying, J. Cross‐linked polymer encapsulating the therapeutic agent; degradation rate of the cross‐linked polymer is correlated with a local concentration of an indicator, and the therapeutic agent is released as the cross‐linked polymer degrades, 2004.

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