Using the JDCS cohort, we reported the incidence rate of diabetic retinopathy in Japanese adult type 2 diabetes patients with a long-term follow up of 8 years. These differences will be established primarily through results from our present research and a review of related literature. Study designs included three population-based surveys, two cohort studies, five case-control studies; 32 clinic-based, nine eye clinic-based and eleven other hospital-based surveys. A previously validated algorithm was applied to characterize each youth with Type 1 or Type 2 DM. Third, diabetic macular edema (DME) rather than proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the increasingly common cause of visual impairment. The risk of blindness was greater among those with proliferative than with nonproliferative retinopathy but was substantial even for those without retinopathy. The CSME incidence was 8.7%, and it increased with diabetes duration, accounting for most of the overall incidence of sight-threatening DR.
‘Recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus’ was defined as having diabetes diagnosed by a physician within the previous year. Disease progression was seen in 9/31 participants (29.0%, 95%CI = 14.9−47.8) who had diabetic retinopathy at baseline. The other proteins were unchanged, however, despite treatment and improved blood glucose levels. The mean age of patients was 59.5 years. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of DR in these elderly type II diabetics is lower than that previously reported in patients with type II disease but a small percentage of patients had visually threatening retinopathy at presentation. Most of the patients had mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In these 639 patients, approximately seven per cent had sight-threatening retinopathy that included significant macular oedema, all of whom required monitoring.
The presence of hypertension or smoking was not significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in recently diagnosed diabetic patients. Ocular hemorrhage and, more important, intraocular hemorrhage after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction is extremely uncommon. In Hong Kong, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was alarmingly high and some patients had already developed sight-threatening retinopathy that included macular oedema. We estimated the annual and cumulative incidence of retinopathy over a four year period, and explored the association between the development of retinopathy and its putative risk factors. A systematic screening program in the community is needed for early detection and to reduce blindness in diabetic patients.