To compare the maternal bone mineral density (BMD) changes in gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies using quantitative ultrasound measurements of the os calcis, BMD measurements were performed at the os calcis in early pregnancy before 20 weeks and in the late third trimester after 36 weeks, using a Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer system. Although gestational diabetes usually clears at delivery, 75% of these women will go on to developed impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes, especially if they are obese or if their glucose level had been high. They were treated with the same metabolic goal according to a predetermined protocol. In pregnancy, the gut GLI response to glucose was reduced in the overweight gestational diabetics and abolished in the normal women. Correlation coefficients were assessed between the lipids versus insulin, glucose, BMI, and blood pressure. The same doses of nicotinamide upregulated mRNA expressions of SOD and CAT genes in liver but reduced the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or E. Within diabetic pregnancies, lower initial BMD values, higher fat accumulation and higher early-pregnancy body mass index were associated with lower BMD loss.
HDL values rose significantly in the group taking Ovcon, and LDL values fell significantly in all 3 groups. A significantly higher incidence of small-for-gestational-age infants (20% vs.