The high occurrence of poor vitamin D status in our subjects is comparable with other reports from Iran [10, 17]. Approximately 40 % of those affected will go on to develop diabetes-related chronic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy (DN). Standard tests for hyperglycemia in diabetes, such as fasting glucose and hemoglobin (HbA1c), are currently not recommended for GDM screening. Whether these biological clues are causal or not will provide information to prevent T2D at a very early stage and to develop new targeted personalized interventions in high-risk individuals. 7 of the 12 included studies were classified as ‘high quality’. Received January 15, 2015. The duration of hyperglycemia caused by failure of betacells also affects insulin secretory capacity, mass, and apoptosis rate of beta-cells, resulting in additional alterations in several processes such as islet inflammation, amyloid deposition, critical B-cell phenotypic alterations (Prentki and Nolan, 2006).
The miR-200 family inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer cell migration by direct targeting of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2. Sphingolipids comprise a heterogeneous class of lipids including free sphingoid bases, ceramides, sphingomyelins, and glycosphingolipids. However, there were only a few biomarkers that may have causal effects on T2D. Further research is needed to broadly evaluate the causal effects of multiple biomarkers on T2D and glycaemic traits using data from large-scale cohorts or GWAS including many different genetic variants.