To assess the evidence from systematic reviews on the effect on morbidity and mortality of blanket screening for hypertension or diabetes mellitus compared with targeted, opportunistic or no screening, we searched for relevant systematic reviews and conducted duplicate study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal. Their latest research, to be presented June 11 at the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) 65th Scientific Sessions in San Diego, Calif., confirms the link between hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), overexpression of PKC-beta 2 and kidney disease. That, in itself, is not a surprising advance, notes Ben Bluml, RPh, SVP for Research and Innovation at the APhA Foundation, but this study purposely aimed at underserved populations disproportionately affected by diabetes—including uninsured, homeless patients who received care at free clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers. For each type of diabetes we focused on four broad areas; demographic details, biochemical markers, clinical features and therapeutic strategies. Biochemical analysis of salivary cotinine was done using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay kit from Salimetrics. They studied 72 diabetic patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass over a seven-year period with at least three years of follow-up. McCarthy, of the Imperial College Genetics and Genomics Research Institute in the U.K., led the study, which is the fourth to report a potential susceptibility locus on chromosome 1.
Ninety-three percent of patients completed the 12-month study and were analyzed for outcomes. Something wasn’t right. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people age 45 and above be tested for diabetes at least every 3 years. For example, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a highly reliable predisposing gene for type 2 diabetes (1–3). Oxidative damage to DNA was assessed from 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion. Liver fat is known to be a risk factor in metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus, thus the observed lowering effect of OraftiSynergy1 on liver fat, independent of weight loss, in prediabetic people provides an additional benefit in diabetes prevention. Confounders considered varied across the studies and included: age; sex; breastfeeding and weaning variables; maternal age; maternal education, maternal use of vitamin D supplements in pregnancy; smoking during pregnancy; drugs taken during pregnancy; type of delivery; low birth weight; study centre; number of siblings; family history of type 1 diabetes; neonatal and most common childhood diseases; history of surgical operations; and severe infections.
There was no correlation between malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion. We confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in early diabetes as assessed from malondialdehyde excretion. We were unable, however, to confirm oxidative damage to DNA in this cohort of patients; and there was no evidence of a correlation between lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.