[ Diabetes Type 2 ]

Interferon alpha treatment and endocrine disease

Endocrine disease frequently interrupts sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may signal serious endocrine disease. These glands are responsible for making hormones that regulate a range of processes, such as growth and bone development, metabolism, sexual function and reproduction, and mood. They originate from the primary reproductive glands (ovaries in women and testes in men) and are regulated by hormone signals from the pituitary gland; luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). To that end, this symposium incorporates multiple cases through which participants can practice and receive faculty feedback and support to build their clinical skills. Lab work is done by appointment only. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Combined, 57 patients were studied; 38 chronically transfused, 12 glucocorticoid-dependent, and seven in remission.


No such trial has yet been reported, so we have to assess evidence from less reliable comparisons. It is also a growth hormone related disorder. However, there were only 65 patients in each group and the study lacked the statistical power for a confident negative conclusion. Thyroid dysfunction (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) as discussed above affects menstruation. You may also experience blurred vision, dry mouth, loss in concentration and itchy skin. During pregnancy some women may experience gestational diabetes insipidus where an enzyme secreted by the placenta destroys the ADH in the mother. Your thyroid gland makes hormones that tell your body’s systems how fast work.

When necessary, one of our Social Workers is also available to meet with our patients during the same day. Health issues can represent themselves symptomatically because of the over or under functioning of the thyroid gland. Interferon α has also been used in the treatment of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. We evaluate adrenal-related osteoporosis with fractures that compromises the ability to walk or to use the upper extremities under 1.00 ; adrenal-related hypertension that worsens heart failure or causes recurrent arrhythmias under 4.00 ; adrenal-related weight loss under 5.00 ; and mood disorders under 12.00 . In hepatitis B, the prevalence of antibodies before interferon treatment is lower than in hepatitis C, and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction is only 2-4%.15,17 Because of the lower incidence, monitoring of thyroid function is probably not indicated in these patients after interferon α treatment, in the absence of symptoms. Interferon has also been used in the treatment of malignant disease, including haematological malignancy, carcinoid tumour, metastatic melanoma and breast cancer.1,3,5 In patients with carcinoid tumour or breast cancer the incidence of thyroid dysfunction during interferon treatment can be very high—usually 20-30% and sometimes 50%.29-30 Both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease have been reported. However, most series are rather small and long-term data are lacking.

Symptoms can include irregular menstrual periods, loss of fertility, increased hair growth on the face, chest, or abdomen, acne, and a tendency toward weight gain and insulin resistance (diabetes).

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