[ Herbal Remedies ]

High prevalence of immuno-unreactive intact albumin in urine of diabetic patients

Equilibria of binding of long-chain fatty acids to albumin in sera from type I diabetic patients and healthy adults were studied by dialysis exchange rate determinations and described by,p*, thereserve albumin concentration for binding of fatty acid, C*/p*, the,total availability of fatty acids, whereC* is the total concentration of non-esterified fatty acid, andL*, thefatty acid binding property of albumin, which isL*=p*/P+0.05C*/P, whereP is the albumin concentration. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on 1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-μm 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-Iabeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACRs) were calculated from untimed urine collections. Other measurements included the prevalence of diabetic complications, glycaemic control, lipid and lipoprotein levels, vitamin status and renal function tests. This means that, in the course of a day, ∼37 000 g of serum albumin pass through the glomeruli, of which ∼1.3 g leak through the glomerular walls (2). Blood volume remained unchanged; however, systemic protein concentration increased from 4.9 ± 0.1 g/dl in controls to 6.4 ± 0.4 g/dl in 15-day IDDM rats. Microsc.

In all patients (groups A, B, and C) the urinary-serum glycosyl albumin concentration ratio was correlated inversely with albumin clearance. With different types of kidney disease, particularly diabetes, the kidney is damaged and leaks protein (or albumin) into the urine. For urine samples in the macroalbuminuric range, there was no statistically significant difference between HPLC and RIA. Immuno-unreactive albumin was confirmed as albumin, analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Conclusion: These studies show that to determine microalbuminuria accurately, there is a need to assess urinary total intact albumin, rather than simply immunoreactive albumin. Am J Kidney Dis 41:336-342.

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