Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are administered by daily injection because of short plasma half-lives, which result partly from the biochemical instability of these peptides. The inclusion criteria were: (a) age >20 years; (b) diabetes mellitus diagnosed >2 years; (c) A1C level at 8% to 12%; and (d) receiving premixed insulin twice daily with a total insulin daily dose >0.6 u/kg/day. Here we tested whether GLP-1 analogues were also effective in the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic alterations in patients with hypothalamic disease. The LEAD programme reported HbA1c reductions from 0.8 to 1.5% with liraglutide (1.2 and 1.8 mg), accompanied by low rates of hypoglycaemia and some weight loss; side effects were primarily gastrointestinal in nature (e.g. This review compares the therapeutic potential and possible side effects of metabolically stable analogues/peptide agonists of the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with the application of DPP IV inhibitors that reduce the rate of endogenous degradation of GLP-1 and other incretins. Weight and glycaemic control improved significantly. This is expected with a twice-daily dose, keeping its pharmacokinetic profile in mind.
Therefore, the pharmacist must be prepared to explain the appropriate and safe use of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy for patients being prescribed this class to meet target A1C goals. Noticeably, a recent study discovered that GLP-1 receptor could also be expressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), but the impact of GLP-1 analogs on PTC is not known. Peripheral administration of liraglutide or lixisenatide can cross the blood brain barrier and enhanced cAMP level in brain, suggesting that GLP-1 receptor agonists directly acts on central nerve system .