[ Diabetes Type 1 ]

Early exposure to cow’s milk and solid foods in infancy, genetic predisposition, and risk of


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or type I diabetes, is the end result mainly of a T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet β cells. From a community cohort of 6,257 subjects with 8 yr’ follow-up, genetic predisposition score with subsets of 3, 18, 36 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (genetic predisposition score; GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36) in association with T2DM were determined, and their effect was evaluated using risk prediction models. Methods  Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (n = 23) derived from phase II of the International HapMap Project and in silico functional variants (n = 2) were genotyped in 1467 White individuals from the British Isles (cases, n = 718; control subjects, n = 749) by a combination of Sequenom iPLEX and TaqMan technologies. Baseline dietary intakes were collected by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. PAX4 is a transcription factor essential for the development of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Very recently, a study on 105 patients with T2DM and normal renal function also found that in patients with T2DM, basal level of Hcy was 35% lower compared with healthy subjects [12]. Relative to unexposed low-risk individuals, early exposure to cow’s milk was strongly associated in individuals with a high risk marker (OR 11.3, Cl 1.2–102.0).

In this population of middle-aged and older women of European ancestry, those genetically predisposed to higher BMI or T2D did not possess shortened telomeres. These data indicate that early exposure to cow’s milk and solid foods may be associated with increased risk of IDDM. These results raise concerns over the prevention and diagnosis of diabetes in this area, especially in minority groups.

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