These pages are best viewed with Netscape version 3.0 or higher or Internet Explorer version 3.0 or higher. Retinal photographs were obtained at a clinical examination attended by each participant in 2007-2008, and retinal vascular calibre was measured and summarised as the central retinal artery or vein equivalent (CRAE or CRVE) using a computer-based program and a standardised protocol. Several studies such as UKPDS, DCCT, and EDIC have been performed to evaluate the effects of glucose control on tissue complications in patients with diabetes. We examined baseline serum Arg and ADMA levels in a cohort of 105 subjects with type 2 diabetes and compared them to an age- and weight matched non-diabetic group of 137 individuals who served as a reference population. These techniques are being applied in diabetes research and will make it possible to determine the alterations that have occurred in growth factor synthesis and growth factor-matrix protein interaction and cell-type-specific alterations in cell growth that occur after loss of normal glucose homeostasis. There was no significant correlation between plasma sialic acid and CHD in either sex. It has been reported in only one recent study (4), in which both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, that type 1 diabetic subjects (n = 49) had significantly higher sCD40L levels than control subjects.
This review (based on MEDLINE searches, 1980-2005) examines the evidence linking the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and glycaemic control, assesses the relative contributions of basal and meal-time concentrations, and considers the implications for optimal treatment for people with Type 2 diabetes or with prediabetic IGT. In animals with experimental diabetes, CAP22 reduces the profoundly elevated serum cholesterol concentrations and the increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the vessel wall. An excess morbidity in diabetics due to cardiovascular disease has been noted in several epidemiologic studies, although the number of patients are rather small in some studies. CVD risk factors and complications were determined as part of the baseline assessment using standardized protocols across study centers. This paper provides two key pieces of the many needed to understand the scope of the economic burden of diabetes and its complications for Canada.