Glucose tolerance was assessed, according to WHO diagnostic criteria, in 506 consecutive African patients admitted with sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis to the tuberculosis wards of Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with active, culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) in Maryland to determine the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. Using Poisson regression analysis, we estimated TB incidence in individuals with DM vs. We recently reported that smear-positive TB was associated with a 10 kg weight loss, which was both reflected in large deficits in arm fat area and especially arm muscle area , suggesting that nutritional support to facilitate optimal recovery of lean body mass is needed during the treatment. The series on TB and diabetes published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology today, has papers contributed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes was most prevalent in the 45-55 year age group, and increasing weight, BMI and waist circumference were associated with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus may adversely affect the outcome of tuberculosis treatment.