Six weeks after the onset of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes (STZ) in Munich-Wistar rats, the effect of a low-sodium (LNa) and a low-salt (LNaCl) diet on renal function and on plasma and kidney tissue angiotensin II (AIIp, AIIk) was tested. This review includes an update on the physiology of the kidneys, their role in the pathophysiology of T2DM, and the mechanisms implicated in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease, such as glomerular hyperfiltration and inflammation. A strong rationale therefore exists for the aggressive treatment of NODM in kidney recipients to limit these complications. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk for NODAT in patients with ADPKD were included. Univariate analysis identified variables to be associated with the onset of PTDM: older recipient age (P = .05), male gender (P = .03), family history of diabetes (P = .04), advanced donor age (P = .008), absence of induction immunosuppression (P = .04), use of tacrolimus (vs cyclosporine; P = .01), one or more than one (steroid-treated) acute rejection episode(s) (P = .000001), cytomegalovirus infection (P = .02), and use of beta-blockers or diuretics (P = .05). Post hoc comparisons were made using Bonferroni-corrected Mann–Whitney U tests. There were some changes of urate fractional excretion in these patients: this value was significantly lower in patients with microalbuminuria compared with those with proteinuria >300 mg/24 h, as well as in the control group (p < 0.05). PTDM occured in 10 APKD patients and four controls (34.6% vs 15.3%; P < 0.005). Pre-transplantation modality did not affect graft survival. 103+/-10 micromol/min, P < 0.001), resulting in net renal glucose uptake in the diabetic subjects (92+/-50 micromol/ min) versus a net output in the nondiabetic subjects (21+/-14 micromol/min, P = 0.043).