Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart pumps blood inadequately, leading to reduced blood flow, back-up (congestion) of blood in the veins and lungs, and other changes that may further weaken the heart. The prevalence and incidence of HF is increasing in diabetes and mortality rates remain alarmingly high. Overall, glucose-lowering medications or strategies increased the risk for heart failure by around 14% compared to standard of care or placebo. Hospitalization rates for HF at 2 years increased with increasing quintiles of HbA1C (Q1: 13.3%, Q2: 13.1%, Q3: 15.5%, Q4: 16.4%, and Q5: 18.2%), but this association was not statistically significant when adjusted for potential confounders. As defined by the National Institutes of Health, health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions . The cohort was categorized by the presence or absence of prevalent CHD. In this new study, the researchers found that around one person in a hundred from the cohorts they analysed had two or more conditions.
65%, P = 0.001) and obese (13% vs. Conclusions The relative effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on the risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes is uncertain, given the relatively short follow-up and low quality of evidence. Each year, about 1.6 million cases of diabetes are newly diagnosed in the US.2 In addition, an estimated