[ Diabetes Type 2 ]

Are we overestimating the loss of beta cells in type 2 diabetes?

Pancreatic beta cell death is a hallmark of type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this aspect of diabetic pathology are poorly understood. Learn how they work and what happens when they don’t. King, Susan Phillips, and Jianhua Shao. Normalized to BLKS control mice; P = 0.055 for miR-141 in db/db.BLKS versus WT at 12 weeks. Furthermore, there is evidence favoring a convergence in signaling pathways toward common effectors of beta-cell apoptosis elicited by stimuli implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At baseline, the subjects in the upper PI/I ratio quartile were more likely to be men and receiving secretagogue drugs; they also showed a borderline longer diabetes duration (P = 0.06) and higher serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. (10) add a new dimension to the progression of type 1 diabetes by demonstrating that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in β-cells precedes the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes.

It has a stronger genetic component than type 1 diabetes, and its appearance can be hastened by an unhealthy lifestyle (fat-rich diet, lack of exercise, etc.). Correction of the beta-cell loss in type 1 diabetes will, therefore, require strategies that target both the immunologic and cellular mechanisms that destroy and maintain beta-cell mass. 1d, h), the approximately 10% decrease in type 2 diabetic specimens (63.0 ± 8.6% vs 70.1 ± 6.4%) was barely significant (p = 0.051). Indeed, the very first human study simultaneously showing the presence of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance was conducted by Rabinovitz and Zierler (1) in the forearm of obese subjects. With respect to potential years of life lost, diabetes ranks 19 worldwide and 13 in Western Europe.2 The major reasons for premature mortality of diabetic patients are cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and cancer. Glucagon-containing cells (Fig. 1b, f) were similarly represented in non-diabetic (light microscopy: 20.2 ± 5.3%; EM: 21.3 ± 6.6%) and diabetic (23.3 ± 5.4% and 21.6 ± 6.9%) samples.

Furthermore obesity was associated with pancreatic lipid accumulation and increased beta-cell volume, although BCM relative to body weight was not changed. Since the 1970s, researchers have researched transplantation of insulin-producing cells as an alternative treatment for diabetes. When isolated non-diabetic islets were studied, 24 h exposure to high glucose reduced the insulin-positive area as assessed by light microscopy (Fig. 1i, m) (treated vs untreated: 49 ± 11% vs 74 ± 8%; p = 0.03) but not as assessed by EM (67 ± 5% vs 71 ± 7%; p = 0.5) (Fig. 1l, p). A marked reduction in insulin granules (Fig. Different effects were elicited by different NEFA, depending on their chain length and degree of saturation [91,92].

There was no change in glucagon staining (Fig. 1j, n) or chromogranin A staining (Fig. 1k, o) in response to high glucose exposure. Insulin release (pmol/islet/min) at 3.3 mmol/l glucose did not differ significantly between ND (0.21 ± 0.07) and type 2 diabetic (0.19 ± 0.06) islets. However, insulin secretion at 16.7 mmol/l glucose was ∼50% lower from the diabetic cells (0.24 ± 0.03 vs 0.52 ± 0.33, p = 0.04); after pre-culture with high glucose, a decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin release (0.28 ± 0.15 vs 0.61 ± 0.13, p = 0.04) was found, similar to that of type 2 diabetic islets.

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