[ Diabetes Solutions ]

A/Prof Jerry Greenfield — Garvan Institute of Medical Research

Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. People will ask me where I’m getting this information from, but I’ve been playing with 11 patients with different dosages. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with increasing levels of several amino acids and decreasing levels of histidine and glutamine. Now their spot in the pantry is occupied by protein powder and fiber for your morning shakes. In contrast, the oxidation of glutamate was significantly reduced in retinas from diabetic rats (62%, P glutamate oxidation by the transaminase inhibitor aminoxyacetate (80%, N.S.), compared to the significant decrease seen in control rats (61%, P glutamine synthetase were also significantly reduced in retinas from rats diabetic for 2-6 months [range of 48% (P glutamine synthetase was normalized by acute injections of insulin, but not by reducing blood sugar levels with injections of phlorizin. New onset diabetes (NODM) accounts for nearly 15% of liver transplant recipients and a similar proportion of patients have diabetes prior to transplant thus increasing the magnitude of the problem [1]. The sensitivity of glutaminase, measured in intact liver mitochondria, to phosphate was markedly left-shifted in mitochondria from diabetic rats compared with those from controls.

No treatment effect on C-reactive protein was found (P = 0.44).We demonstrated that the 6-wk supplementation with 30 g/d glutamine markedly improved some cardiovascular risk factors, as well as body composition, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. The neuronal area in diabetic rats increased in relation to the normoglycemics. All the data were analyzed anonymously by labeling a number ID throughout the study. 2015 64: 299-310. These alterations were not found in diabetic mice supplemented with Gln. Glycemic Effects and Safety of L-Glutamine supplementation with or without sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes patients-a randomized study.

PLoS One. Nutritional therapy is a key intervention for reducing weight and improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Costa et al. Vranic. The amino acid glutamine is abundant in the human diet and a particularly effective stimulant of GLP-1 release in vitro because it not only generates an electrical signal in L-cells but also elevates intracellular cAMP levels [6]. 2013; 56: 875-85. Myint KS, Greenfield JR, Henning E, Farooqi IS, Holst JJ, and Finer N.


Prolonged successful therapy for hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass: the pathophysiological role of GLP-1 and its response to a somatostatin analogue. Eur. Very ill patients suffer both a decrease in glutamine levels and muscle loss. Endocrinol 2012; 166: 951-955. Samocha-Bonet D, Wong O, Synnott, E-S, Piyaratna N, Douglas A, Gribble FM, Holst JJ, Chisholm DJ, Greenfield JR. So BioKier is pressing forward on both fronts. J Nutrition 2011; 141: 1233-1238.

Serum samples were also analyzed by a standard radioligand binding assay (RBA) for the three individual ZnT8A variants (ZnT8RA, ZnT8WA, ZnT8QA) as well as with the ZnT8TripleA assay, as previously reported [8, 11]. Obesity due to Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) deficiency is associated with increased linear growth and final height, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and incompletely suppressed Growth Hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:  E181-188E (2011). Greenfield JR, Miller JW, Keogh J, Henning E, Satterwhite JH, Cameron GS, Astruc B, Mayer JP, Brage S, See TC, Lomas DJ, O’Rahilly S, Farooqi IS. Modulation of blood pressure by central melanocortinergic pathways. “Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance.” Exerc Immunol Rev 12.6-33 (2006): 41. Greenfield JR, Farooqi IS, Keogh J, Henning E, Habib A, Blackwood A, Reimann F, Holst JJ, Gribble F.

Oral glutamine increases circulating GLP-1, glucagon and insulin levels in lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1 – 8. Greenfield JR, Tuthill A, Soos MA, Semple RK, Halsall DJ, Chaudhry A, O’Rahilly S. Severe insulin resistance due to anti-insulin antibodies: Response to plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy. Diabetic Med 2009; 26: 79 – 82. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Hayward CS, Chisholm DJ, Campbell LV. L-Glutamine is an excellent all-around supplement that may prove useful as part of a nootropic stack.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 661-672. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, Kelly PJ, Spector TD, Gallimore JR, Pepys, MB, Campbell LV. Obesity is an important determinant of baseline C-reactive protein concentration in monozygotic twins, independent of genetic influences. Circulation 2004; 109:3022-3028. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, Kelly PJ, Spector TD, Campbell LV. Moderate alcohol consumption, dietary fat composition, and abdominal obesity in women: evidence for gene-environment interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2003; 88: 5381-5386.

Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Campbell LV, Jenkins AJ, Kelly PJ, Spector TD, Hayward CS. Physical activity reduces genetic susceptibility to increased central systolic pressure augmentation: A study of female twins. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42:264-270.

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