[ Nutrition ]

An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting

There has been a marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes in Asia over recent years. H.-Y. A total of 3,370 patients with T2DM were divided into categories according to BMI. In Asian populations, a higher risk of diabetes starts at a lower body mass index than in Europeans. The remaining diabetics (185 million) are located in countries belonging to what is called the “International Operations” (IO) area. Study quality was assessed by using the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) guidelines. Presently, there is currently no specific AAPI diabetes program available in NE Ohio.

Based on the findings from central HbA1c measurements and reported local HbA1c assessments, it also appears that more patients with poor glycaemic control did not have access to glycated haemoglobin measurements. Being overweight or obese increases an individual’s risk of diseases and conditions such as heart disease or stroke, Type 2 diabetes and some cancers. The “Apps” segment contains diabetes apps e.g. Between the two trips I have a couple of days in the UK where I will be re-stocking on insulin. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 905–912. Recognising that healthy eating is a key factor in the fight against diabetes, FIA’s members share common values around the responsible promotion of balanced diets and lifestyles. In the long term, governments will be unprepared for the social and economic costs of poor nutrition.

Science 2007; 316: 889–894. Although similar legacy effect has not been confirmed for dyslipidemia and blood pressure [51], optimal treatment of these conditions has been shown to reduce cardio-renal complications in both primary and secondary prevention [6]. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation. Many of Asia’s diabetics remain undiagnosed, and others have pre-diabetic conditions that put them at risk for developing diabetes later. Our study also confirmed significant association of FTO (rs 9939609) variant with T2D in this Asian Indian sample. Replication and extension of genome-wide association study results for obesity in 4923 adults from northern Sweden. Hum Mol Genet 2009; 18: 1489–1496.

They measured insulin sensitivity by looking at glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test. Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 18–24. 9 Legry V, Cottel D, Ferrieres J, Arveiler D, Andrieux N, Bingham A et al. Effect of an FTO polymorphism on fat mass, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the French MONICA Study. Metabolism 2009; 58: 971–975.10 Hertel JK, Johansson S, Raeder H, Midthjell K, Lyssenko V, Groop L et al. Genetic analysis of recently identified type 2 diabetes loci in 1638 unselected patients with type 2 diabetes and 1858 control participants from a Norwegian population-based cohort (the HUNT study).

Progression of diabetes is also known to be more rapid among South Asians and Mukhopadhyay et al. 11 Li H, Wu Y, Loos RJ, Hu FB, Liu Y, Wang J et al. Variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are not associated with obesity in a Chinese Han population. Diabetes 2008; 57: 264– 268. 12 Tan JT, Dorajoo R, Seielstad M, Sim XL, Ong RT, Chia KS et al. FTO variants are associated with obesity in the Chinese and Malay populations in Singapore. Diabetes 2008; 57: 2851–2857.

13 Wu Y, Li H, Loos RJ, Yu Z, Ye X, Chen L et al. What, however, defines a high risk individual? Diabetes 2008; 57: 2834– 2842. 14 Hotta K, Nakata Y, Matsuo T, Kamohara S, Kotani K, Komatsu R et al. Variations in the FTO gene are associated with severe obesity in the Japanese. J Hum Genet 2008; 53: 546–553. 15 Tabara Y, Osawa H, Guo H, Kawamoto R, Onuma H, Shimizu I et al.

Prognostic significance of FTO genotype in the development of obesity in Japanese: the J-SHIPP study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33: 1243–1248. 16 Yajnik CS, Janipalli CS, Bhaskar S, Kulkarni SR, Freathy RM, Prakash S et al. But as we previously discussed, sugar is often hidden in food products, and since it has so many different names, it is difficult to find. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 247–252. 17 Sanghera DK, Ortega L, Han S, Singh J, Ralhan SK, Wander GS et al. Impact of nine common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms in Asian Indian Sikhs: PPARG2 (Pro12Ala), IGF2BP2, TCF7L2 and FTO variants confer a significant risk.

BMC Med Genet 2008; 9: 59. 18 Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539–553. 19 Bellary S, O’Hare JP, Raymond NT, Gumber A, Mughal S, Szczepura A et al. Enhanced diabetes care to patients of south Asian ethnic origin (the UK Asian Diabetes Study): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2008; 371: 1769–1776. It holds everything together and keeps it organized. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Assoc Physicians India 2009; 57: 163–170. 21 Bressler J, Kao WH, Pankow JS, Boerwinkle E. Risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity is differentially associated with variation in FTO in whites and African-Americans in the ARIC study. PLoS One 2010; 5: e10521.

22 Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU et al. Association analyses of 249 796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet 2010; 42: 937–948. 23 Dhawan J, Bray CL, Warburton R, Ghambhir DS, Morris J. Insulin resistance, high prevalence of diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in immigrant Asians. Genetic or environmental effect? Br Heart J 1994; 72: 413–421.

24 Jafar TH, Chaturvedi N, Pappas G. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population. CMAJ 2006; 175: 1071–1077.

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