[ Nutrition ]

A Study of Association of Depressive Symptoms Among the Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients Presenting to

We analyzed data on depressive symptoms (including recent fatigue, sleep disturbance, feelings of hopelessness, loss of libido, and increased irritability) in a longitudinal, biracial cohort study of 11,615 initially nondiabetic adults aged 48-67 years, who were subsequently followed for 6 years for the development of type 2 diabetes. This hormone is a protein of small size. We obtained self-report questionnaire data on depressive symptoms and health attitudes and behaviors related to diet and exercise and clinical data on risk markers (eg, fasting insulin) from 198 youth from an urban setting. Sequential exercise tests were analyzed by 2 independent cardiologists. Linear mixed-model analysis was applied to determine the effects of time and diabetes type on depressive symptoms, HbA1c levels, and fasting glucose levels. The unadjusted risk of incident type 2 diabetes was 1.03 times higher (CI(95%): 1.01-1.06) for each 1-point increment in DSQ score. Overall, the results of this study support the TMSC as a framework to elucidate the relationships among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with T2DM.

Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Exact “normal” urine volume depends on age and gender, bu… Among depressed diabetics 25.9% were having Ischemic heart disease as a comorbid medical illness. This study shows there is increased rate of depression among type 2 diabetic individuals. The interesting association of depression with several demographic and sociomedical factors have an important implication in type 2 diabetics. In the present study, our aim was to analyze the prevalence of depressive symptoms in people with previously known type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, our aim was to study the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depressive symptoms, taking into account potential confounding demographic and biological factors as well as comorbidity.

Diabetes type 2 is the most common kind of diabetes, actually 10 times more common than diabetes type 1, where the insulin production is reduced or stopped. The total study sample consisted of 210 cases who were previously known type 2 diabetes patients, selected by means of simple random sampling method from the medical out patient department. Moreover, despite the evolution in the treatment of hyperglycemia, patients with both CAD and diabetes have worse clinical outcomes, irrespective of the treatment applied [8]. All subjects gave written informed consent and also clearance from ethical committee was taken. Information about age and sex was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured using standard methods. On the day of examination all patients were investigated for fasting and postprandial blood sugars.

The detailed physical examination for all subjects was done by investigating physician. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 21-item beck depression inventory (BDI-21).[9] The items in the BDI-21 are summed into a total score (0–63), with higher scores indicating more severe depressive symptoms. The applied cutoff score for depressive symptoms was ≥16 to increase specificity for depression.[10] The psychiatric assessment was done by co-investigator (psychiatrist). Two hundred and ten completed questionnaires were analyzed. In our study all patients were type 2 diabetics. The prevalence of depression among the study participants according to BDI scale was 27.6%. The maximum number of patients (35.4%) were belonging to the range of the age group 51-60 (years).

Female constituted of 65.7% of the study sample and 69% of which had BDI score more than or equal to 16, compared to males who had only 31%. Such studies also demonstrated that IP can be observed by sequential exercise tests (SETs), in which the improvement in ischemic parameters in the second of 2 SETs were confirmed by invasive measurements of myocardial oxygen consumption. Majority of the study sample, 82.9% were in the married category. The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic profile of the patients studied and BDI score is shown in [Tables and ], respectively. shows the relationship between sociomedical factors and BDI score. The majority of our study population (55.2%) were illiterate. Among the study group 65.5% were suffering from depression, in those patients who had diabetes for more than a year which was statistically significant (P value=0.001).

The study group who were taking combination of drugs for treatment of diabetes were 55.2% who scored more than or equal to 16 in BDI, which was statistically significant (P value=0.001). The study showed the one-fourth of the screened patients are potential cases of depression. Most of them were females and 41% of the depressed patients were overweight. Patients with more than 1 year of duration of diabetes and patients were on combination of antidiabetic drug therapy were significantly associated with depression. About 67% of the total sample was either overweight or obese which is expected in people with type 2 diabetes. However, the BDI score was much higher among obese patients; the difference was statistically not significant, see []. Although about one-fourth of the screened patients were potential cases of depression, the great majority were under-recognized and undertreated.

On the other hand, studies in humans are scarce and their results have also been conflicting [12, 13, 35].

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